Rise of the Rocket Girls: the women who propelled us, from missiles to the moon to Mars by Nathalia Holt (Little, Brown and Company, 2016)
This is the true story of the women who worked at California’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in a professional capacity from its founding in the early 1940s to the 1990s. In 2013, the author interviewed several dozen women who had worked as engineers at JPL over its history, making this into a collective biography that uses real names, photos, career highlights, and love stories. In the beginning they were called computers, because they literally used their mathematical skills to compute trajectories, escape velocities, and many other key parameters needed to guide rockets to their destinations. Though some of them had mathematics or even engineering degrees, the women who were hired at JPL in the 1940s and 1950s were not classified as engineers; they were part of a separate all-women group. Those that stuck around JPL into the 1960s were eventually reclassified, when computers came to mean digital computing machines and gender discrimination started to be frowned upon. Prior to that they suffered significant discrimination, such as when they were forced to quit when they became pregnant. Threaded throughout the book are descriptions of the various space missions that JPL supported over the years and the many technical contributions made by women engineers. The black and white photographs really made the story come to life for me.